Information in this post can used as example for the ENG 1001 or ENG 1002 source-based essays. It first provides an example direct quote citation with resources, and then provides a reminder to use “citation sandwich” formatting to incorporate all your citations. For information about paraphrase/summary citation, see this post.
Direct Quote Example
A direct quote is language taken word-for-word from a source, enclosed in quotation marks. It should be incorporated into your body paragraph only after you provide a topic sentence and begin your paragraph’s claim.
Topic sentence of body paragraph. 1-3 sentences that set-up or build the paragraph’s claim. An article “Generation X and Mixed Messages” by Amy Pond, John Smith, and Rory Williams found in Slate Magazine describes how “the great drawback to becoming a celebrated voice of a generation is that it encourages writers to believe that whatever idle thoughts drift through their minds … are automatically of interest“ (12). While those in previous generations were taught that children should be seen, not heard, the up and coming Generation X has generally been encouraged for individual opinions; however positive this message is, many fear it is creating a generation that will be quickly disillusioned by professional expectation when individuals enter the workforce.
Things to note about this example:
- The parenthetical documentation formatting of this source tells readers the the page number of which it appears but doesn’t reference the authors because the authors were mentioned in the signal phrase. On the Works Cited page, this entry would begin with with Pond, Amy, et al., the last name name, first name of the first author mentioned.
- The introductory signal phrase tells readers the authors, article title, and source of the directly quoted information. The use of the introductory signal phrase helps readers see the credibility and relevance of your source to your topic.
- The explanation or context provided by you, the student, is nearly as long as the paraphrase citation, making your voice just as strong (or stronger) than the voice of the citation.
Citation Sandwich Reminder:
Every body paragraph needs to contain the following elements. These will add academic authority to your writing, showcase the relevance/credibility of the sources you’ve chosen as evidence of your claims, and help readers see the context of your evidence within your paragraph and essay claims.
- Body Paragraph Topic Sentence
- 2-3 sentences that state your claim
- Evidence: signal phrase with citation
- 2-3 sentences that explain (1) how the quote supports your claim or (2) context for the quote
- Repeat “claim, evidence, explain” steps, as needed (at least once is suggested)
- 1-3 sentences that wrap up the paragraph’s point and may transition to the next paragraph.
- IVCC’s online Stylebook
- Purdue’s OWL Writing Lab
- MLA Style examples for citing sources in your essay: https://www.ivcc.edu/stylebooks/stylebook4.aspx?id=31490
- Examples of commonly used signal phrases; this refers to literature but is applicable elsewhere.
- “Introduction to In-Text Citation” PowerPoint located in our Blackboard shell.
- “Direct Quote vs. Paraphrase Citation” PowerPoint
- “Citation Best Practices” PowerPoint located in our Blackboard shell
- “Upgraded Language Expectations” PowerPoint and related post.
And here’s a link to transitional language post if you’re looking for ways to provide more transition within and between your paragraphs.