This can be used as an example for my ENG 1001 and ENG 1002 essays. And while I’ll be specifically grading for citation sandwiches, sandwiching your evidence within your body paragraphs in the way I’ve outlined below will bring a couple key things to your academic writing:
- Academic Authority: providing appropriate signal phrases and explanation will show readers that you’re using credible and relevant sources that fit within the context of your argument.
- Organization: preparing readers for what is coming with a topic sentence, signal phrase, and helping them see the connections that you’ve just made with your citation examples and wrap-up sentences will help them understand the content that you’re providing them. It’s like a little mini 5-paragraph essay within your body paragraphs.
- Grading: while my grading expectations include citation sandwich structure specifically, I’ve simply named a common grading expectation the “citation sandwich” to make things more clear for students. Additionally, most IVCC English instructors use the department grading guidelines that look for strong organization, thesis and support within student writing, something use of citation sandwiches will generally provide your essay.
Citation Sandwich Expectations
Every body paragraph needs to contain the following elements. These will add academic authority to your writing, showcase the relevance/credibility of the sources you’ve chosen as evidence of your claims, and help readers see the context of your evidence within your paragraph and essay claims.
- Body Paragraph Topic Sentence
- 2-3 sentences that state your claim
- Evidence: signal phrase with citation
- 2-3 sentences that explain (1) how the quote supports your claim or (2) context for the quote
- Repeat “claim, evidence, explain” steps, as needed (at least once is suggested)
- 1-3 sentences that wrap up the paragraph’s point and may transition to the next paragraph.
Here’s an Example Direct Quote
Topic sentence of body paragraph. 2-3 sentences that set-up or build the paragraph’s point. The article “Generation X Defined” from Slate Magazine makes the claim “The great drawback to becoming a celebrated voice of a generation is that it encourages writers to believe that whatever idle thoughts drift through their minds … are automatically of interest“ (Pond et al. 455). While those in previous generations were taught that children should be seen, not heard, the up-and-coming Generation X has generally been encouraged for individual opinions. Repeat steps 2-4 as needed. 1-3 wrap-up and transitional sentence (remember that your transitions can be at the end of this paragraph, the beginning of the next paragraph, or combination of the two via connecting language/words.
Things to note about this example:
- The parenthetical documentation formatting of this source tells readers this article includes an author name (and the page number of the citation, when known–often this is not known on Internet source). On the Works Cited page, this entry would begin with the last name of Pond.
- The use of the introductory signal phrase as well as the continued reference back to the source while including additional information helps show readers the credibility of your source while reminding them that you’re using borrowed information.
- The explanation or context provided by you the student is nearly as long as the paraphrase citation, making your voice be just as strong (or stronger) than the voice of the citation.
- IVCC’s online Stylebook
- Purdue’s OWL Writing Lab
- MLA Style examples for citing sources in your essay: https://www.ivcc.edu/stylebooks/stylebook4.aspx?id=31490
- Examples of commonly used signal phrases; this refers to literature but is applicable elsewhere.
- “Introduction to In-Text Citation” PowerPoint located in our Blackboard shell.
- “Direct Quote vs. Paraphrase Citation” PowerPoint
- “Citation Best Practices” PowerPoint located in our Blackboard shell
- “Upgraded Language Expectations” PowerPoint and related post.
And here’s a link to transitional language post if you’re looking for ways to provide more transition within and between your paragraphs.