This can be used as an example for the ENG 1002 essays. The “Citation Sandwich” PowerPoint provides this information as well. And while I’ll be specifically grading for citation sandwiches, sandwiching your evidence within your body paragraphs in the way I’ve outlined below will bring a couple key things to your academic writing:
- Academic Authority: providing appropriate signal phrases and explanation will show readers that you’re using credible and relevant sources that fit within the context of your argument.
- Organization: preparing readers for what is coming with a topic sentence, signal phrase, and helping them see the connections that you’ve just made with your citation examples and wrap-up sentences will help them understand the content that you’re providing them. It’s like a little mini 5-paragraph essay within your body paragraphs.
- Grading: while my grading expectations include citation sandwich formatting specifically, I’ve simply named a common grading expectation the “citation sandwich” to make things more clear for students. Additionally, most IVCC English instructors use the department grading guidelines that looks for strong organization, thesis, and support within student writing, something use of citation sandwiches will generally provide your essay.
This can be used as a general in-text citation example for a direct quote. But don’t forget that every citation needs to be properly incorporated into your body paragraph/essay text, whether direct, paraphrase/summary, primary, or secondary.
Below is a default in-text citation sample, one mentioning the author name and one mentioning the character in question (useful for literary criticism/analysis). Both use a story we study in ENG 1002, ENG 1003, and ENG 2013 but with a fake page number:
The girl states, “will you please please please please please stop talking” (Hemingway 525).
Hemingway writes, “will you please please please please stop talking” (525).
And this is what you do if you’re using a database source that does not have page numbers.
The author writes, “that was the best scholarly evidence about Amelia Earhart’s disappearance I had ever read” (Smith).
Smith writes, “that was the best scholarly evidence about Amelia Earhart’s disappearance I had ever read.”
When researching from a home for computer or one that is not using IVCC’s wifi while on campus, you’ll need to “log in” before you can access the library’s research databases. Here’s the process:
- pull up the IVCC library homepage
- click on the database in which you’d like to research
- it’ll redirect you to a log in screen, you’ll enter 24611 + your student number + 01, and then enter your last name.
- you will then have access to research
- log in again if your computer remains idle for a long period of time or you navigate away from the library page
First off, this description is specific to the Fiction Essay and Poetry Essay assignments in my ENG 1002 course, both face-to-face and online. Each of those essays asks students to use primary and secondary source citation to make a critical argument about a piece of short fiction or a poem/pair of poems.
The short story or poetry you are analyzing in your essay. If your essay is about Disney’s Frozen, then Frozen is your primary source.
Here is an example way in which you can incorporate a primary source citation into your essay writing.
The article(s) you use to support or make your critical/analytical claims about your short story or poetry. In most academic writing, the secondary source will fall into one of two categories (these categories will vary from instructor to instructor and assignment to assignment based on the assignment and course learning outcomes at hand):
- academic secondary source: a scholarly journal article found via IVCC’s library databases, a reputable Internet article, streaming content from a TED talk or reputable podcast, and/or a personal interview. Many instructors will allow .org or .gov sites.
- non-academic secondary source: Internet articles that may not have all of the WWWs, sites such as Wikipedia or Wikihow, documentaries from streaming sites such as Netflix (some instructors will consider documentaries as academic), social media posts, and most general .com sites.
You are expected to know what types of secondary sources are required for each writing assignment. And here is a link to the IVCC Stylebook ‘s “Using Sources” page with additional information about finding credible sources, representing sources fairly, where to use source information, and how to balance your writing voice with that of your sources.
This includes information for the Research Essay assignment in my ENG 1002 class, but can also serve as an example for my LIT 2013 class. First off, here’s the main page about “Creating Works Cited Entries” link from IVCC’s Stylebook, and here’s a sample Works Cited page. Note the hanging tab (that extra indented white space before the extra lines of each entry) and how all the entries are alphabetized. Here’s how to format a hanging tab.
Research Works Cited Page
Students are required to include 3-5 library database articles/sources, 2-4 reputable Internet sources, a there’s a list in the Blackboard resources folder but common ones include Slate Magazine, The Atlantic, The Guardian), and up to 5 additional sources as needed.
The below examples DO NOT include hanging tab formatting (that’s a nightmare for a blog) and are categorized as library database, reputable Internet, and additional common types.
This can be used as an example for the ENG 1002 Poetry essay or Research essay.
Topic sentence of body paragraph. 1-3 sentences that set-up or build the paragraph’s claim. Slate Magazine makes the claim “The great drawback to becoming a celebrated voice of a generation is that it encourages writers to believe that whatever idle thoughts drift through their minds … are automatically of interest“ (Smith, Jones, and Pond). While those in previous generations were taught that children should be seen, not heard, the up and coming Generation X has generally been encouraged for individual opinions.
Things to note about this example:
- The parenthetical documentation formatting of this source tells readers this article includes an author name (and the page number of the citation, when known–often this is not known on Internet source). On the Works Cited page, this entry would begin with the last name of the first author mentioned.
- The use of the introductory signal phrase as well as the continued reference back to the source while including additional information helps show readers when the paraphrase begins and where it ends as well as what source provided the info/idea.
- The explanation or context provided by you the student is nearly as long as the paraphrase citation, making your voice be just as strong (or stronger) than the voice of the citation.
And here’s a link to transitional language post if you’re looking for ways to provide more transition within and between your paragraphs.
Spring 2017 final semester grades on Blackboard now represent the letter grade I’ll officially give you in the course. As mentioned during the final exam period, THANK YOU for an excellent semester!! You are hard workers and I enjoyed seeing your writing and analytical skills improve over the last few months. I wish you all a relaxing summer and a future filled with academic, professional, and personal accomplishment 🙂
Please note the following:
- Your FINAL GRADE is your RUNNING GRADE with any necessary reductions for absences (see the policy on my syllabus). If you have grading questions or concern, email or message me by noon Monday, May 15.
- Please note that IVCC only has A, B, C, D, and F as final grades, so you will receive an A in the course for any percentage from 90-100; you will receive a B in the course for any percentage from 80-89 and so on. I officially give you a letter, not a percentage.
- If you have any questions or concerns about grades, please notify me on or before Monday, May 15 at noon so I have time to make any necessary changes before “officially” entering grades to WebAdvisor. If you contact me with grade concerns or mistakes after Monday at noon, I will still be able to change a grade “in the system” (assuming the concern is valid and not too late after the end of the semester) but it will take some time, which occasionally slows transfers to 4-year institutions or enrollment in spring/future classes.
- I plan to officially post grades to WebAdvisor the morning of Tues., May 16. You should be able to view them “in the system” within 24-28 hours of that time.
- Here’s how you can view your final grades for this and previous/future IVCC classes by logging into WebAdvisor.