Body Paragraph Development: ENG 1002

This post includes information about developing body paragraphs for analytical writing. It first discusses body paragraph development and then provides expectation for how to incorporate and use citation. I consider this a foundation skill-set involved in writing successful academic evidence-based claims.

PART 1: Paragraph Development.

In order to develop/write strong, logical body paragraphs, each one needs to include 3 parts:

  1. Topic sentence: one sentence that lets readers know the paragraph’s main point.
    • Doesn’t provide depth or example.
  2. Developing Sentences: 4-6 sentences, excluding citation.
    • Provides the description, example, or depth that explains your paragraph’s point to readers.
  3. Wrap-up (with optional transition): 1-3 sentences that end your point; may begin to transition to your next topic.

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Library Resources: Fiction Essay

This post provides information about accessing the IVCC electronic research databases specific to the Fiction Essay assignment in my ENG 1002 course. Students are only allowed to use this type of secondary source for the Fiction Essay assignment. Additionally, you’ll find information for adding the appropriate prefix to an article link so you’re able to access it again while off campus.

Library Access: log-in directions

STEP 1: once at the library website and depending on your needs, click on the library database link or the library NoodleTools link. Here is the IVCC Library YouTube tutorial for additional information. 

STEP 2: when you are redirected to the “log in” screen, type in 24611 + your (purple) student number + 01 and enter your last name in the required fields. Contact me for this information if you’re uncertain of your student ID number. 

STEP 3: hit enter.

NOTE: if you run into roadblocks at any point in the process, be sure you allow pop-ups from IVCC’s library website and have given the database page any necessary permissions via your anti-virus program. If that doesn’t help, switch web browsers; for example, use Chrome instead of Firefox or Internet Explorer instead. 

Downloadable/Printable Version 

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Accessing IVCC Library Databases from Home

When researching from a home for computer or one that is not using IVCC’s wifi while on campus, you’ll need to “log in” before you can access the library’s research databases. Here’s the process:

  1. pull up the IVCC library homepage
  2. click on the database in which you’d like to research
  3. it’ll redirect you to a log in screen, you’ll enter 24611 + your student number + 01, and then enter your last name.
  4. you will then have access to research
  5. log in again if your computer remains idle for a long period of time or you navigate away from the library page
  6. NOTE: if it’s still not working, try a different web browser (Chrome instead of Firefox or Firefox instead of Internet Explorer) and make sure your computer is allowing “pop-ups” from the IVCC website.


Primary versus Secondary Sources

First off, this description is specific to the Fiction Essay and Poetry Essay assignments in my ENG 1002 course, both face-to-face and online. Each of those essays asks students to use primary and secondary source citation to make a critical argument about a piece of short fiction or a poem/pair of poems.

Primary Source

The short story or poetry you are analyzing in  your essay. If your essay is about Disney’s Frozen, then Frozen is your primary source.

Here is an example way in which you can incorporate a primary source citation into your essay writing.

Secondary Source

The article(s) you use to support or make your critical/analytical claims about your short story or poetry. In most academic writing, the secondary source will fall into one of two categories (these categories will vary from instructor to instructor and assignment to assignment based on the assignment and course learning outcomes at hand):

  • academic secondary source: a scholarly journal article found via IVCC’s library databases, a reputable Internet article, streaming content from a TED talk or reputable podcast, and/or a personal interview. Many instructors will allow .org or .gov sites.
  • non-academic secondary source: Internet articles that may not have all of the WWWs, sites such as Wikipedia or Wikihow, documentaries from streaming sites such as Netflix (some instructors will consider documentaries as academic), social media posts, and most general .com sites.

You are expected to know what types of secondary sources are required for each writing assignment. And here is a link to the IVCC Stylebook ‘s “Using Sources” page with additional information about finding credible sources, representing sources fairly, where to use source information, and how to balance your writing voice with that of your sources.

Direct Quote & Citation Sandwich Example

Information in this post can used as example for the ENG 1001 or ENG 1002 source-based essays. It first provides an example direct quote citation with resources, and then provides a reminder to use “citation sandwich” formatting to incorporate all your citations. For information about paraphrase/summary citation, see this post.

Direct Quote Example

A direct quote is language taken word-for-word from a source, enclosed in quotation marks. It should be incorporated into your body paragraph only after you provide a topic sentence and begin your paragraph’s claim.

Topic sentence of body paragraph. 1-3 sentences that set-up or build the paragraph’s claim. An article “Generation X and Mixed Messages” by Amy Pond, John Smith, and Rory Williams found in Slate Magazine describes how “the great drawback to becoming a celebrated voice of a generation is that it encourages writers to believe that whatever idle thoughts drift through their minds … are automatically of interest (12). While those in previous generations were taught that children should be seen, not heard, the up and coming Generation X has generally been encouraged for individual opinions; however positive this message is, many fear it is creating a generation that will be quickly disillusioned by professional expectation when individuals enter the workforce.

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Works Cited Page Formatting: ENG 1002 Fiction and Poetry Essay

This includes information for my ENG 1002 Fiction and Poetry essays, but can also serve as an example for my LIT 2013 class. The first section provides Works Cited Page basics, and then I provide some citation examples from sources common to the Fiction and Poetry essays.

Works Cited Page Basic Info and Resources

  1. Here’s the main page about “Creating Works Cited Entries” link from IVCC’s Stylebook, which provides examples of entries for different types of sources.
  2. And here’s a sample Works Cited page. Note the hanging tab (that extra indented white space before the extra lines of each entry) and how all the entries are alphabetized.
  3. Here’s how to format a hanging tab.

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Fiction Essay Proofreading

While making the final revisions to and proofreading your Fiction Essay, be sure to check for the following:

Assignment Requirements:

  • Signal phrases attached to all quotes.
  • Quote sandwiches in body paragraphs.
  • Minimum of 3 quotes from primary source (short story) in essay body.
  • Minimum of 2 quotes from secondary source (library article) in essay body.
  • Two vocab terms used twice each.


  • Underline your vocab term.
  • “Title of Story/Article” in quotation marks.
  • Title of Journal or Database italicized.
  • Hanging tab indent on alphabetized Works Cited page.